This function simplifies the calculation of percentages. It is unique in algebraic modes as it determines which parameters it needs according to the prior input. If used in conjunction with an addition or subtraction, it is binary insofar as accepting two input values, otherwise it is postfix unary and acts simply to divide the value by 100.

**Example:** *What is 315 plus 17%?*

315 [+] 17 [%] [ENTER]Displays: 368.55

In the above example, the % function takes the value prior to the + operator as input as well as the value immediately before it.

In the following examples, % simply divides the value by 100.

**Example:** *What is 19% of 200?*

200 [×] 19 [%] [ENTER]Displays: 38

**Example:** *What percentage of 543 equals 27?*

27 [÷] 543 [%] [ENTER]Displays: 4.972...

In RPN mode, the percentage function is always binary — acting between the X and Y registers.

Raise to any power. This function accepts two values.

To calculate 5^3, enter:

5 [^] 3 [ENTER]Displays: 125

Complex numbers may be used or returned. For example:

-27 [^] 0.7 [ENTER]Displays: -5.9043666729509497 + 8.12666354048222156i

See also: ^{n}√x.

In prefix algebraic mode, this key primarily acts as a (-) minus sign. In postfix modes, it is a sign toggle and can be pressed to reverse the sign of the display value.

To enter -5, you would press:

[+/(-)] 5[ENTER]Displays: -5

Natural fraction conversion key. When you press the **[a b/c]** key, the result of a previous calculation
will be shown as a natural (or common) fraction. The natural fraction form will also be shown if you input a
decimal point.

**Example:** *Show Π as a fraction.*

[CONST] Π [a b/c]Displays: 3 + 16/113 (aprx)

The 'aprx' indication signifies that the fraction cannot be represented precisely, and it is thus an approximate conversion. You can modify the precision of fraction conversions by changing the 'Max Denominator' setting in the Options Window.

The **[a b/c]** key may also be used to input values in common fraction form. Pressing it again will show
the result of the reduction.

**Example:** *Reduce 1 + 8/6*.

1 [a b/c] 8 [a b/c] 6(input fraction)[ENTER](convert to decimal*)Displays: 2.333333...[a b/c](press again to convert decimal)Displays: 2 + 1/3

*It was not was not strictly necessary to press **[ENTER]** here, but it demonstrates the conversion to
decimal.

See also **[d/c]**.

Complex conjugate. This function operates in a postfix manner and returns the conjugate of a complex value.

For example:

5 [;] 6 [ENTER]Displays: 5 + 6i[conj]Displays: 5 - 6i

It does nothing in base-N modes or if the use of complex numbers is disabled.

Engineering key. The **[ENG]** key provides a convenient way to view values in engineering form, without
having to enable the dedicated engineering mode. Simply press **[ENG]** any time.

**Example:**

564000000 [ENG]Displays: 564E6 (Mega)

Press **[ENG]** multiple times to decrement the exponent by 3, or use with **[SHIFT]** to increment by
3.

Imaginary part. It operates in a postfix manner and returns the imaginary component of a complex value.

For example:

5 [;] 6 [ENTER]Displays: 5 + 6i[imag]Displays: 6

It does nothing in base-N modes or if use of complex numbers is disabled.

See also: real.

Calculates the logarithm in any base. This function accepts two inputs in the form:

value[logB]base

For example, to calculate the base 3 logarithm of 129, key in:

27 [logB] 3 [ENTER]Displays: 4.42359188449767959

Calculate the nth root of x, where n is always entered first.

For example, to calculate the 3rd root of 9, enter:

3 [n√x] 9 [ENTER]Displays: 2.08008382305190411

This is equivalent to the following input, which may be preferred by some users:

9 [^] 3 [xDisplays: 2.08008382305190411^{-1}] [ENTER]

See also: ^.

Real part. Returns the real component of a complex value.

For example:

5 [;] 6 [ENTER]Displays: 5 + 6i[real]Displays: 5

It does nothing in base-N modes or if use of complex numbers is disabled.

See also: imag.

Calculate the factorial of x, where x is a positive integer.

Example:

5 [x!]Displays: 120

Return the reciprocal of x, or 1 divided by the display value.

Example:

3 [xDisplays: 0.33333333333333333^{-1}]

See also: Trigonometric Functions, Number Theory Functions